Parasitic worms

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florida joe

Well-Known Member
#1
Not wanting to highjack a thread where the posts turned to the topic of worms I submit the following
Worms of Concern
Anchor Worm
Young anchor worms are free-swimming crustaceans that bury themselves into the fish’s skin. It takes several months before the worm becomes visible in form of holes or ulcers on the fish's body. After laying eggs, the worm dies off.
Since the worm cannot be removed by hand, a potassium permanganate bath for about 20 minutes should cure it (dosage 10ml/l).
Thorny Headed Worm
Visible symptoms are white or green threads on the gills. The fish often scratches on objects in the aquarium.
The thorny headed worm is similar to the anchor worm, only smaller in size. It attaches itself to the gills. The cure is also a potassium permanganate bath for 20 minutes (dosage 10ml/l).
Flukes
The symptoms are mucus-covered gills and/or body, red spots on the skin; fins appear eaten away, as well as rapid breathing.
Flukes are flatworms and are similar in appearance as Ick and can be better viewed with detail through a magnifying glass. Flukes will destroy the gills and kill the fish if left untreated.
The best cure is a potassium permanganate bath for 20 minutes (dosage 10ml/l).
Threadworms
Threadworms are internal fish that sometimes emerge from the fish's anus. This parasitic infestation can be fatal if not treated in time. Preferred treatment is parachlorometaxylenol soaked fish food and a bath in the same for several days (dosage 10ml/ liter).
Leeches
These external parasites are visible on the skin, gills and fins of the fish and are similar in appearance to Ick.
Since they attach themselves to the fish, the best method of removal is a bath in a salt solution for 20 minutes (dosage 2.5 % salt to water). During the bath, most of the leeches will simply fall off; the ones remaining can be removed with a pair of tweezers.
 
#2
Good thread joe. Lots of info here I dont have any of these problem but still handy info. If you could put pics whit the worms. I would think the mods should make it a sticky in a disease forum. Like the one they have on sickness. Just a thought
 

florida joe

Well-Known Member
#5
Originally Posted by robertmathern
http:///forum/post/2895967
Good thread joe. Lots of info here I dont have any of these problem but still handy info. If you could put pics whit the worms. I would think the mods should make it a sticky in a disease forum. Like the one they have on sickness. Just a thought
Robert the only worm you will ever encounter is in a Mescal bottle Pass the salt and lime my friend
 
#6
Thats it is my friend that it is. Glad to see this became a sticky. Now if you excuse me I am still fighting the dead worm in this bottle and so far it is winning
 

florida joe

Well-Known Member
#7
Originally Posted by robertmathern
http:///forum/post/2896079
Thats it is my friend that it is. Glad to see this became a sticky. Now if you excuse me I am still fighting the dead worm in this bottle and so far it is winning

Oh you amateurs not to go off on a tangent but put your tongue over the bottle tip it up wait for the worm to drop to the neck of the bottle where your tongue is. Remove your tongue and presto you got the worm umm umm good
 
#8
Originally Posted by florida joe
http:///forum/post/2896085
Oh you amateurs not to go off on a tangent but put your tongue over the bottle tip it up wait for the worm to drop to the neck of the bottle where your tongue is. Remove your tongue and presto you got the worm umm umm good
The mighty Joe solved yet another mystery of another worm
 

florida joe

Well-Known Member
#12
Originally Posted by florida joe
http:///forum/post/2895860
Not wanting to highjack a thread where the posts turned to the topic of worms I submit the following
Worms of Concern
Anchor Worm
Young anchor worms are free-swimming crustaceans that bury themselves into the fish’s skin. It takes several months before the worm becomes visible in form of holes or ulcers on the fish's body. After laying eggs, the worm dies off.
Since the worm cannot be removed by hand, a potassium permanganate bath for about 20 minutes should cure it (dosage 10ml/l).
Thorny Headed Worm
Visible symptoms are white or green threads on the gills. The fish often scratches on objects in the aquarium.
The thorny headed worm is similar to the anchor worm, only smaller in size. It attaches itself to the gills. The cure is also a potassium permanganate bath for 20 minutes (dosage 10ml/l).
Flukes
The symptoms are mucus-covered gills and/or body, red spots on the skin; fins appear eaten away, as well as rapid breathing.
Flukes are flatworms and are similar in appearance as Ick and can be better viewed with detail through a magnifying glass. Flukes will destroy the gills and kill the fish if left untreated.
The best cure is a potassium permanganate bath for 20 minutes (dosage 10ml/l).
Threadworms
Threadworms are internal fish that sometimes emerge from the fish's anus. This parasitic infestation can be fatal if not treated in time. Preferred treatment is parachlorometaxylenol soaked fish food and a bath in the same for several days (dosage 10ml/ liter).
Leeches
These external parasites are visible on the skin, gills and fins of the fish and are similar in appearance to Ick.
Since they attach themselves to the fish, the best method of removal is a bath in a salt solution for 20 minutes (dosage 2.5 % salt to water). During the bath, most of the leeches will simply fall off; the ones remaining can be removed with a pair of tweezers.
I have added these bad guys to the list
. Cestodes: Cestodes are the tapeworms that live in digestive systems; typically an aquarist will only become aware of their presence through a section of worm being expelled for the vent or from postmortem dissection
Fishes are either imported with the tapes or pick them up from ingesting their intermediate hosts; in their food. Once more, a good reason to not-use lives marine foods.
There are anti-worm chemicals that work on ridding fishes of intestinal parasites; you can check with local sources as to which is the "latest and greatest" available; but I wouldn't. The vast majority of incidents show that the cure is too late, or more deadly than the problem. Well-maintained specimens have "successful" relationships with their internal parasites; they do not kill them.
Roundworms, the Phylum Nematoda Roundworms, the Phylum Nematoda like the tapes, are rarely encountered unless detected protruding from a fish's vent or from cutting up a specimen after it has died. Many are microscopic, some macro- as parasites. Amongst all "worm" groups a nematode is easy to recognize by it's tri-radiate esophagus, otherwise they're typically smooth, white, and non-descript. like the tapes, are rarely encountered unless detected protruding from a fish's vent or from cutting up a specimen after it has died. Many are microscopic, some macro- as parasites. Amongst all "worm" groups a nematode is easy to recognize by it's tri-radiate esophagus, otherwise they're typically smooth, white, and non-descript.
With this worm group the best treatment is none at all; simply optimizing the environment reduces the likelihood of loss or debilitation from roundworms. If you have an aquaculture facility or many members of the same species that are determined to be dying from nematodes, anthelminthics (Piperazine, Levamisol (both in Discomed (tm)) the family of chemicals called Benzimidizoles, et al. are efficacious).
 

florida joe

Well-Known Member
#13
I have added these bad guys to the list
. Cestodes: Cestodes are the tapeworms that live in digestive systems, typically an aquarist will only become aware of their presence through a section of worm being expelled from the vent or from postmortem dissection
Fish are either imported with the tapes or pick them up from ingesting their intermediate hosts, in their food. Once more, a good reason to not-use live marine food.
There are anti-worm chemicals that work on ridding fish of intestinal parasites, you can check with local sources as to which is the "latest and greatest" available; but I wouldn't. The vast majority of incidents show that the cure is too late, or more deadly than the problem. Well-maintained specimens have "successful" relationships with their internal parasites; they do not kill them.
Roundworms, the Phylum Nematoda Roundworms, the Phylum Nematoda like the tapes, are rarely encountered unless detected protruding from a fish's vent or from cutting up a specimen after it has died. Many are microscopic, some macro- as parasites. Amongst all "worm" groups a nematode is easy to recognize by it's tri-radiate esophagus, otherwise they're typically smooth, white, and non-descript.
With this worm group the best treatment is none at all; simply optimizing the environment reduces the likelihood of loss or debilitation from roundworms. If you have an aquaculture facility or many members of the same species that are determined to be dying from nematodes, anthelminthics (Piperazine, Levamisol (both in Discomed (tm)) the family of chemicals called Benzimidizoles, et al.
 
#14
Nice pictures Joe. People are often confronted with flukes and anchor worms. This thread will be a good source to point them to so that they can see what they look like.
 

florida joe

Well-Known Member
#15
But remember there are good worms. There are many advantages of "having worms"; they help clean up wastes and uneaten food, in turn becoming food for your livestock. Through their tunneling through the substrate, worms prevent clogging and channeling, helping keep you water clean and clear. Worms can also be of service to the marine aquarist as bio-indicators, ornament and more. Just know which are the good guys and bad guys
 

florida joe

Well-Known Member
#16
More info on anchor worms
Anchor worms are parasites that infect fish and one of the main problems with them is that they increase the risk of attracting other diseases. The anchor worms can cause serious damage to a fish and can eventual kill the fish themselves, but anchor worms are only seldom the cause of death in fish with anchor worm since the damage weakens the fish and opens it up for other diseases that end up killing the fish.
Anchor worms are in fact small crustaceans. These crustaceans start out their life as free swimming and find a fish to burrow their way into. They burrow themselves too far into the fish to allow for safe removal. When they have buried themselves into the fish they move themselves into the muscles where they live for several months while developing. They then make their way out of the fish, a process that often leaves ugly wounds, and releases their eggs before dying. The circle will then start over again.
The wound caused by the crustaceans often gets infected which is one of the main reason this disease can invite so many other diseases to infect the sick fish. The long time the crustaceans spend in the fish also makes it hard to know where this disease was introduced from and if it has been cured. The symptoms of anchor worms include the fish scratching themselves against everything in the tank and white green threads hanging out with inflamed centers on the body of the fish.
Anchor worms can be treated with potassium permanganate in the community tank (will color the water) or by bathing sick fish in a potassium permanganate solution (10mg per liter) for 20-30 min. Treating the entire community/holding aquarium will as I said color the water and be a little messy but it is still a god idea since it guarantees that no other fish are infected and that the disease doesn't return in a few months by emerging from a fish that is currently showing no signs of infection. If you decide to treat your entire tank you should add 2 mg potassium permanganate to every liter of aquarium water in your tank.
 
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